英文目录与提要研究

减小字体 增大字体 作者:佚名  来源:www.zhonghualunwen.com  发布时间:2012-12-18 12:09:13

Research Articles

The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty

Luo Xinhui(4)

The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are ofgreat significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickeningand awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate ofHeaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhoupropagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandateof Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhouidea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. Theintermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained theoverall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".The Evolution of the Testamentary System from the Qin and Han to the Tang and Song Dynasties

Nie Xiaohong(19)

In ancient China, there was a process of development by which dying injunctions (yiming) became wills. In the early period, the injunctions had multifaceted content; they werethe deceased´s expression, while living, of wishes and arrangements for after his death. Outsideforces and national laws or regulations had no part in them. From the Sui and Tang dynasties on,with the weakening of the system of hereditary aristocracy, big families with shared wealth livingunder one roof gradually evolved into smaller ones and the issue of inheritance of family propertybecame more immediate and important. Last injunctions thus became the means by which thehead of the family divided the inheritance. Last injunctions with economic content were in effectwills, as defined by the Testamentary Law of the Tang dynasty. The popularity of wills andsample wills in the Tang and Song dynasties reflects the importance of the will in the inheritanceof family property. The system of inheritance by will reflects the patriarchal system of familyproperty inheritance; and inheritance by will had a higher status than statutory succession. In theSong dynasty, wills were completely under state control, and a will become valid only after it hadbeen approved by the official authorities. The Southern Song levied a tax on wills (actually aninheritance tax) ; this institutional refinement marks a new stage in the development of China´ssystem of inheritance.

Old Country and New State: A Study Centered on the Writing of Epitaphs after the 14th Year ofZhenguan of the Tang Dynasty in the Xizhou Region Pei Chengguo(36)

The change in the writing of epitaphs in Xizhou region after the 14th year of the Zhenguanreign period of the Tang dynasty faithfully reflects the process by which survivors of theGaochang kingdom accepted the culture of the Central Plains as well as their growing identification with the Tang state. Changes in the writing of epitaphs, such as the way dates wererecorded and the use of "taboos" and "courtesy names" in referring to the dead are all results oflearning from the Central Plains culture. During the Longshuo period, the epitaphs begin to usea particular word, "false" (伪 wei) to refer to the fallen Gaochang kingdom and to indicate tomblocations. These changes can be ascribed to the Tang government´s standardization of the writingof local epitaphs. The Gaochang survivors had no grievances against their erstwhile state, whilethe thoughtful and considerate measures taken by the Tang meant that Tang rule in Xizhou wassolidly established. This was rewarded by the identification with the Tang of survivors of theformer Gaochang kingdom, an identification that provided a foundation and guarantee for theTang dynasty´s later management of the Western Regions.

The Spread of Ming Blue-and-white Porcelain: A Temporal and Spatial Perspective Wan Ming(52)

In the 16th century, global maritime trade connected world markets as well as the wholeworld; mankind was facing unprecedented spatial and temporal changes, and globalization wasjust beginning. Thereafter, Eastern and Western civilizations intermingled and grew rapidly inthis wider space. As a representative type of Chinese porcelain, blue-and-white porcelain spreadall over the world, leading global fashion trends, constituting a process of communication oftechnology and knowledge, and opening up a new global cultural landscape. Linked to this wereeconomic, social and cultural change. Blue-and-white porcelain was indeed a participant in theworld´s changes of time and space, prompting in-depth reflection on the growth of civilizations.The course of development of China´ s unrivaled 16th century blue-and-white porcelain tells ushow civilizations grow. The meeting of Chinese and Western civilizations was not only a baptismof blood and fire; it also involved communication, forming a new global history.

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Tags:提要

作者:佚名
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